Which of these processes occurs in the cytosol?
a. the citric acid cycle
c. the electron transport system
d. the preparatory reaction
Complete oxidative breakdown of glucose results in ______ ATP molecules.
pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide
The preparatory reaction breaks
a. glucose into pyruvates.
b. pyruvates into glucose.
c. pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide.
d. pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and water.
acetyl-CoA to a C4 molecule
The first reaction in the citric acid cycle is binding
a. carbon dioxide to a four-carbon (C4) molecule.
b. carbon dioxide to a five-carbon (C5) molecule.
c. acetyl-CoA to a C5 molecule.
d. acetyl-CoA to a C4 molecule.
Aerobic cellular respiration yields about ____ of the energy of glucose in ATP molecules.
The first phase of aerobic cellular respiration is:
The Citric Acid Cycle
Which process produces both NADH and FADH2?
Which process produces alcohol or lactate?
The Electron Transport Chain
Which process reduces molecular oxygen to water?
During glycolysis _____ carbons will enter the pathway but _____ carbons will leave in the form of pyruvates. _,_
The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis produces ______ ATP from each NADH and/or _________ ATP from each FADH2 entering the system. _,_
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP
One turn of the citric acid cycle produces
a. 2 NADH, FADH2, 2 ATP.
b. 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP.
c. 1 NADH, 3 FADH2, 2 ATP.
Acetyl-CoA is produced from (a _______ and a ______) _,_
The Citric Acid Cycle
The carbon dioxide we exhale is produced in
Decide whether the following statements concerning glycolysis are true or false:
Glycolysis will yield a net of 2 ATP only during aerobic respiration
Decide whether the following statements concerning glycolysis are true or false.
Glycolysis is a catabolic process.
Can Drive Anabolism
a. cause death.
b. can drive anabolism.
c. tend to be endergonic.
d. include the buildup of products such as complex proteins and nucleic acids.
e. All of the choices are true.
Converted to Acetyl Groups
For fatty acids to enter the citric acid cycle of aerobic respiration, the fatty acids must be:
b. combined with glycerol.
c. combined with ATP.
d. converted to acetyl groups.
e. converted into five-carbon sugars.
Adult humans cannot synthesize _____ out of the _____ common amino acids. _,_
essential; must include them in our diet
The amino acids we cannot synthesize are called _____ because we _____.
a. unnecessary; therefore do not need them
b. limiting; must include them in our diet
c. anabolic; must use alternative amino acids
d. essential; must include them in our diet
The membrane protein (enzyme) _________ will transform ADP + P to ATP as H+ flow down a gradient from the intermembrane space into the matrix.
All of these choices are advantages
Why would an organism utilize alcohol fermentation if it is wasteful of the energy in food molecules and poses a threat of death due to high levels of toxic alcohol?
a. The organism can survive short spells of anaerobic conditions and maintain growth and reproduction.
b. If glucose levels are not high, there may be time to disperse the alcohol "waste."
c. Fermentation can provide a rapid burst of ATP since it does not have to go through the full breakdown cycle.
d. All of the choices are advantages.
Use significant amounts of oxygen to produce ATP
Compared with other cell components (organelles, cell membrane or nucleus), the mitochondria would be the only one that would
a. form an electrochemical gradient across a membrane.
b. use significant amounts of oxygen to produce ATP.
c. use a chemiosmotic complex to produce ATP.
d. produce ATP via glycolysis.
e. release protons (H+).
Glycolysis, preparatory reaction, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
The correct sequence for aerobic metabolic breakdown of glucose is: _,_,_,_
Is formed as a result of the reduction of oxygen as the final electron acceptor from the electron transport chain
Some desert beetles can live out their life without ever drinking liquid water. They survive on "metabolic water," which
a. was produced as water in the organisms they eat and is retained, never to pass out of the cell membrane.
b. is absorbed from the air along with respiratory oxygen.
c. is formed as a result of the reduction of oxygen as the final electron acceptor from the electron transport chain.
d. is a breakdown product from glycolysis in the cytoplasm.
e. is an original storehouse of water that is never allowed to pass out the cell membrane.
The final electron acceptor in glycolysis is oxygen and this step will occur within the matrix of the mitochondria. True or False.
The breakdown of glucose in cellular respiration is a catabolic reaction. True or False.
Chloroplasts are capable of running photosynthesis which is the most abundant form of anabolic metabolism in life. True or False.
Which of the following coenzymes will accept two electrons and two hydrogens during oxidation?
there is an input of 6 carbons (glucose) and an output of 6 carbons (2 pyruvates)
Which statement is correct about the input and output of carbon during glycolysis?
a. there is an input of 6 carbons (glucose) and an output of 6 carbons (2 pyruvates)
b. there is an input of 6 carbons (2 pyruvates) and an output of 6 carbons (1 glucose)
c. there is an input of 6 carbons (glucose) and an output of 6 carbons (6 CO2)
2 ATP are invested and 4 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP
What is the correct summary for the energy investment vs. energy harvesting steps of glycolysis?
a. 2 ATP are invested and 4 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP
b. 4 ATP are invested and 6 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP
c. no ATP are invested and 2 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP