‘What I like so much about contemporary art now is its ambiguity, its uncertainty. It is precisely this quality that engages and unsettles us’ – Benjamin Genocchio, art critic. How does this view challenge traditional ideas about art? Discuss particular works such as installations, happenings and site-specific works. Audiences make pretentious judgements on artworks due to their ambiguity and uncertainty. However, traditionally site-specific art was created to exist in a specific place, rather than to be provocative, like it can be in the present zeitgeist.

Traditionally art was seen as objective, put now it has become more subjective and adds a layer of depth for the audience to question. > invite the audience in < Traditional artworks such as ... now art makes the audience question the artwork through the use of the ambiguity evoked in the artwork. All of these artists show different approaches to their practice. Artist 1 concertrates on creating ambiguity and uncertainty through ... Artist 2 is ... Artist 3 is...

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During traditional times, art towards the viewer was often seen as something objective, but during this zeitgeist art has become relatively subjective. Traditional site specific art is created to exist in a specific place. The artist must keep in mind the audience, environment and the location in which the artwork is situated. Many artists deal with issues that concern society by using their site specific works to challenge the audience to decode their artworks. These places will have significance in the artwork as they are purpose-built works.

Although now, the purpose of site specific art has changed over time the same principles are still in place. Traditional site specific works were generally commissioned large urban sites and were statues and sculptures that were meant to bring pride and honour to their home towns. The context of site specific work has changed over time and outdoor site-specific art can include landscaping in combination with a permanent piece, and dance performances in a certain area which all challenge the traditional notions of art. Sculptures and many other objects an be placed to make a site specific art. The artwork can be permanently associated to that place in which it was constructed. Sometimes the work is only temporary and only documentation of the work is left, often selling for lots of money as it can never be the same because of the ever changing environment. Jeanne Claude and Christo changed the concept of site specific artworks by wrapping the environment such as ‘Wrapped Coast’. They also covered a political building in Germany called the Reichstag and named the artwork fittingly, ‘Wrapped Reichstag’.

Another post modern artist that pushes the boundaries of art is Anish Kapoor who aims to puzzle his audience with his geometric artworks such as ‘Leviathan’. Approaches to this question varied, with perspectives ranging from critical and historical overviews of the 20th century and more contemporary accounts of practice. Many responses identified Duchamp as pivotal in the development of postmodernism, and presented in-depth discussions of contemporary examples linking traditional ideas to support their case.

Responses evidenced a strong understanding of the conceptual framework in discussions about the use of technology, shifting interpretations and audience responses as well as the diversity of issues addressed by contemporary artists. Popular artists referenced were Cindy Sherman, Yasumasa Morimura, Tracey Emin, Barbara Kruger, Jeff Koons, Damien Hirst and The Guerrilla Girls. Many responses featured feminist artists and revealed an understanding of how contemporary artists challenge past traditions about the portrayal of women.

The better responses presented explanations of traditional and contemporary practice, with a comprehensive discussion of significant examples. Many of these responses were knowledgeable about the philosophy of postmodernism, often identifying the postmodern approach evident in the quote to reveal an impressive understanding of how artists challenge patterns of authority. precarious Audiences make pretentious judgements on artworks due to their ambiguity and uncertainty. However, traditionally site-specific art was created to exist in a specific place, rather than to be provocative, like it can be in the present zeitgeist.

Traditionally art was seen as objective, put now it has become more subjective and adds a layer of depth for the audience to question and be intrigued by. Traditional artworks such as Michaelangelo’s ‘David’ were commissioned and were made for permanence. In present times art makes the audience question the artwork through the use of the ambiguity and uncertainty evoked in the engaging and unsettling artworks. Laura Keeble uses ambiguous objects in her artworks to make the audience question her satirical works that are made to engage the audience and challenge traditional ideas about art by making it more conceptual rather than conventional.

Michelangelo Bunarroti was a traditional sculptor and painter from Italy who lived in the late 15th Century to the mid-16th Century. Michelangelo’s ‘David’ 1501-1504 is a traditional site specific sculpture that was created to be placed outside Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. The statue, unlike some post modern site specific works was made for permanence. The marble statue is based on the story of David and Goliath and how David beats him even though he is a giant. This has connotations with the biblical reference of the story of David and Goliath.

The slingshot that David used to beat Goliath is only small in the sculpture to emphasise that it was David’s courage that defeated the bigger Goliath and not the equipment he used to do it. The statue holds significant cultural value with how the people of Florence wanted to become a bigger city and they wanted to overcome the other larger cities. This artwork can be linked to Florence as they believed they were the underdog and the statue conveys the strength that the underdog is capable of. The statue has been made from traditional materials that were used for sculptures, like marble.

Laura Keeble is a British artist who uses satire in her works to create engaging, ambiguous works that challenge traditional views on art. Keeble’s ‘Money makes the world go round’ is an example of this, where a dozen carousel horses are assembled in a circle outside London’s Bank of England. The concept of this work delves into the controversial issue of big earners getting bigger bonuses while they are part of the cause of the economic meltdown that the world is undergoing. The carousel horses represent a playground, symbolising that the city is viewed as a financial playground.

The horses are galloping and bucking to reflect the stock market’s ups and downs. The horses are mocking the unstableness of the turbulent financial climate. Keeble uses carousel horses to engage people and interest them in the artwork. The work traverses traditional ideas about art because it is not in a gallery, not a religious painting or sculpture and is not made of traditional materials. Keeble also uses humour and irony in her works to highlight issues in society. Keeble placed a cheap replica of Damien Hirst’s diamond skull with rubbish outside the London’s White Cube Gallery to mock society in the way art is perceived.

Keeble is mocking the way in which art is valued in society by placing the artwork in the rubbish bin outside the gallery. The title ‘forgot something’ invites the audience in and then opens the door into ambiguity where the audience can retrieve various interpretations from the work because of their take on art values. In the early hours of Monday December 21st 2009, twelve carousel horses took centre stage at the heart of London's financial district of Bank, commenting on the controversial issue of large annual bonuses awarded to prosperous earners in the city, many responsible for the economic meltdown.

In the wake of Alistair Darling's introduction of the 50% 'super-tax', it reflected the views of the city as a financial playground. Southend-based artist Laura Keeble installed this new site-specific artwork outside London's Bank of England. Decorated with past issues of The Financial Times, lights and garlands made from replicated international bank notes, the bucking and galloping horses sat upon their golden poles, circling the area.

Reflecting the ups and downs of the world's stock market, Keeble's fairground horses mocked the volatility of the financial climate and how many city investors have benefited from these turbulent times. Best known for her satirical public interventions, Keeble's work uses humour and irony to tackle more pressing questions at hand. Forgotten Something!? - a sardonic replica of Damien Hirst's diamond skull - was left discarded with rubbish outside of London's White Cube Gallery.