US History Review Test 18

The Rise of Industrial America, 1865 - 1900

1. The World’s Columbian Exposition in 1892 was [A] a meeting held in the District of Columbia to expose industrial working conditions. [B] the Chicago World’s Fair. [C] a summit conference of North and South American governments held in Colombia to promote industrial development in the Americas. [D] the first international labor relations conference held at Columbia University in New York City. [E] the meeting held in Chicago by the leaders of the major industrial unions, to find a method of cooperating in the struggle against big corporations.

2. The Interstate Commerce Commission was established to [A] investigate and oversee railroad activities. [B] encourage Americans not to buy imported goods. [C] control fluctuations in the international grain market. [D] encourage interstate cooperation in commercial ventures. [E] regulate the disruptive activities of industrial unions.

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3. Which of the following statements about the period from 1860 to 1900 is not true? [A] The number of persons engaged in manufacturing quadrupled. [B] Manufacturing output soared. [C] Innovative advertising and marketing techniques were created. [D] Boom-bust business cycles produced two major depressions. E] U. S. textile and iron production tapered off.

4. Which of the following was characteristic of modern industrial America after the Civil War? [A] exploitation of immense coal deposits as a source of cheap energy [B] the rapid spread of technological innovation and the factory system [C] a drop in price levels and a rise in interest rates [D] the impulse to drive rivals out of business and consolidate monopolistic power [E] all of these

5. The use of technology in industry in the second half of the nineteenth century [A] made it possible for manufacturers to hire cheap unskilled or semiskilled labor. B] made it possible for manufacturers to eliminate human labor power altogether. [C] required a better-educated work force. [D] was primarily the hallmark of giant corporations. [E] allowed traditional craftsmen and artisans to maintain their dominance over production.

6. What was one of the ways in which railroad companies pioneered in large-scale corporate enterprise? [A] the issuance of stock to meet their huge capital needs [B] the merger of ownership and management [C] the drive to automate and mechanize [D] none of these 1

7. In 1900 U. S. railroads [A] had collapsed because of underuse and lack of maintenance. B] were so profitable that the federal government borrowed vast sums of money from them. [C] were largely financed by a handful of elite, wealthy families. [D] had a combined debt that was five times that of the federal government. [E] had finally broken even financially after decades of start-up costs.

8. At the end of the Civil War, what communications system did the railroads use to coordinate their complex flow of rail cars? [A] the newly invented telephone [B] the Pony Express [C] the telegraph [D] There was no communications system to coordinate rail travel. E] A, B, and C.

9. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the differences between single working-class women and married working-class women in the nineteenth century? [A] Married women commonly worked under sweatshop conditions within the tenements, whereas single women often viewed outside work as an opportunity. [B] Married women worked in cigar factories, whereas single women did needlework at home. [C] Married women were able to work in factories because of the large number of unmarried women available to provide childcare. D] Married women had the assistance of their husbands at home and in the factory, while single women accepted an ideology of domesticity based on the idea of separate spheres. [E] Married women commonly hired maids and cooks to ease the burden of their work at home, whereas single women usually did most of the work themselves.

10. Andrew Carnegie borrowed many of the successful management methods he used in the steel industry from his earlier experiences as [A] an employee of the Pennsylvania Railroad. [B] a bookkeeper in the textile industry in his native Scotland. [C] a foreman in the meatpacking industry in Chicago. D] a bartender at an Edinburgh pub. [E] a secretary for the Singer Sewing Machine Company.

11. What did Andrew Carnegie consider “the eighth wonder of the world”? [A] the United States Constitution [B] the manufacturing process of the steel business [C] the telegraph [D] the American railroad system [E] J. P. Morgan’s creation of United States Steel Corporation out of Carnegie Steel and Federal Steel

12. The United States Steel Company was [A] the steel company operated by the United States government when it nationalized the steel trust. [B] the first business capitalized at more than $1 billion. C] Andrew Carnegie’s steel company. [D] created by J. P. Morgan to compete with Federal Steel. [E] the first company to issue stock to meet its huge capital needs. 2

13. One of the secrets of John D. Rockefeller’s success was that he [A] paid attention to the minutest details. [B] was able to drive most other steel manufacturers into bankruptcy. [C] did not waste a lot of money on advertising. [D] concentrated on the “big picture” and did not get bogged down in details. [E] pioneered a division of labor in which he concentrated on financial matters and delegated the technical operations of the industry to his managers.

14. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act [A] was passed because Congress feared that the trusts would stamp out all competition. [B] was interpreted by the Supreme Court in ways sympathetic to big business. [C] fined violators up to $5,000 and a year in jail. [D] failed to define clearly either “trust” or “restraint of trade. ” [E] all of these

15. The Supreme Court in the United States v. Knight Company diminished the effectiveness of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by ruling that [A] employers could force employees to sign and abide by “yellow dog contracts. ” [B] the Granger Laws were unconstitutional because states could not regulate interstate commerce. C] manufacturing was not interstate commerce. [D] that all trusts and monopolies in interstate commerce were illegal and could be broken up by the federal government. [E] holding companies, which simply owned a controlling share of the stock of other firms, were not subject to antitrust laws.

16. Which of the following did Thomas Edison invent? [A] refrigerated rail cars [B] a process for making steel [C] the phonograph [D] the sewing machine [E] all of these

17. All of the following were factors in the South’s late economic development except [A] illiteracy. [B] devastation of the Civil War. C] lack of capital. [D] scarcity of towns and cities in the South. [E] lack of natural harbors and waterways.

18. Considering the environmental, social, and economic consequences, which of the following is the best conclusion to draw about the process of industrialization as experienced in the United States after the Civil War? [A] It could have occurred much faster. [B] It was a mixed blessing. [C] It was a negative process.

19. The development of a system of indoor plumbing [A] helped to spread disease by more quickly bringing polluted water directly into the home. [B] helped to free homeowners from the web of local and state regulations that had burdened them. [C] resulted in the phenomenal waste of water. [D] was typical of the technological breakthroughs that simplified everyday life in the nineteenth century. [E] C and D [D] It was a positive process. [E] It made little difference. 3

20. The rapid industrial development of the United States between 1860 and 1900 [A] produced an economy dominated by enormous corporations. [B] drove small and medium-sized companies to near extinction. [C] increased the demand for and the importance of skilled artisans. D] touched the lives of only the richest 5% of the American population. [E] reduced the use of women and child laborers in mines and mills.

21. By the 1880s, most southern farmers [A] were self-sufficient because they reverted to subsistence farming. [B] were the wealthiest, most stable members of southern society, farming vast plantations with large crews of black field hands. [C] specialized in growing cash crops such as cotton and tobacco and were dependent on outside producers for food, shoes, and agricultural implements. D] had left the land to become industrial workers because western competition drove southern farms out of business. [E] had sold their land to northern speculators or northern-based agribusinesses.

22. The New South Creed was a belief held by [A] aristocratic southern families that the South would flourish again only if it returned to the plantation system. [B] fundamentalist Southern Baptists that the “Second Coming” of Christ was close at hand. [C] Northerners that a new “accomodationist” approach had to be used if the south were to be brought back to economic health. D] industrialists that the South’s natural resources and cheap labor made it a natural site for industrial development. [E] white supremacists that “the South will rise again” through the subjugation of the black race.

23. How did southern cotton mills differ from northern cotton mills in the 1880s? [A] Southern cotton mills were located in the countryside rather than cities. [B] Southern mill workers were paid better than northern mill workers because paternalistic southern mill owners treated workers more like family. [C] Southern cotton mills tended to be smaller, with safer working conditions. D] Southern cotton mills used traditional handicraft methods rather than machinery to produce cloth. [E] Southern cotton mills hired mostly single women.

24. By 1920, the center of the nation’s textile manufacturing was [A] New York City’s “garment district. ” [B] New England. [C] the South. [D] outside the United States, because manufacturers were moving their plants overseas. [E] southern California, closest to Asian labor markets.

25. How did industrialization affect skilled craftsmen? [A] Skilled craftsmen were transformed into “aristocrats” in the world of labor. [B] Skilled craftsmen were needed to operate machinery. C] Subdividing the manufacture of a product into smaller jobs meant that an individual no longer manufactured an entire product. [D] The tension of assembly-line work caused formerly sober, disciplined craftsmen to drink on the job. [E] all of these. 4

26. What was the “contract system” of hiring labor? [A] Master craftsmen hired their own helpers and paid them out of their own pockets. [B] Workers insisted on union contracts. [C] Workers would be hired with no benefits. [D] Large companies negotiated with subcontractors who hired and supervised the unskilled, seasonal help. E] none of these27. In the late nineteenth century, child labor [A] was uncommon because children were not strong enough to handle the large machines and fast pace of factory production. [B] was common in the economically-depressed south, but uncommon in the prosperous north. [C] was uncommon because for the first time childhood was seen as a distinct stage of life reserved for innocence, play, education, and maternal love. [D] was common in the coal mines and cotton mills. [E] was uncommon because children had to stay in school until age sixteen.

28. Which immigrants were most likely to be found in skilled trades in the 1880s? [A] Irish [B] Chinese [C] French-Canadian [D] German [E] Mexican

29. Women joined the work force in growing numbers in the late nineteenth century because [A] trade unions won a series of court cases opening employment opportunities for women. [B] the feminist movement encouraged farm girls and young immigrant women to work in order to become independent of their families. [C] industrialists thought women would have a civilizing influence on the brutal factory conditions. [D] the Civil War had created a shortage of male workers. E] changes in agriculture brought young farm women into the industrial labor force, and immigrant daughters worked to supplement meager family incomes.

30. Which of the following statements about upward mobility in the late nineteenth century is the most accurate? [A] Skilled workers had few opportunities to rise to the top in small companies. [B] Middle class Americans tended to slide downward more often than rise upward in socio-economic rank. [C] Andrew Carnegie’s rise from poverty to colossal wealth was typical of the opportunities open to immigrants in America. D] Those immigrants who got ahead in the late nineteenth century were more likely to go from rags to respectability than from rags to riches. [E] Few industrial leaders came from the privileged classes because they were too soft to make it in the world of competitive capitalism.

31. Approximately how was wealth distributed in America in 1890? [A] Ten percent of American families owned 73 percent of the nation’s wealth. [B] Wealth was so evenly distributed that the United States, unlike European countries, was essentially a classless society. [C] Fifty percent of American families—a large middle class—owned 73 percent of the nation’s wealth. [D] Seventy-five percent of American families owned all of the wealth, and 25 percent owned nothing. [E] none of these 5

32. All of the following impeded the growth of unions except [A] hostility toward unions from the public, employers, and government. [B] worker disillusionment over unauthorized and/or unsuccessful strikes. [C] lack of interest on the part of workers because their real wages were rising and conditions were improving. [D] ethnic and religious diversity of the working class. E] divisions between skilled craftsmen and common laborers.

33. In 1866 the newly organized National Labor Union embraced a wide range of reformist and political goals except [A] relaxing restrictions on immigration. [B] the eight-hour day. [C] endorsing the cause of working women. [D] establishing a federal department of labor. [E] ending convict labor.

34. The Knights of Labor advocated a great association of all workers except [A] blacks. [B] Catholics and Jews. [C] liquor dealers.

35. Terence V. Powderly, head of the Knights of Labor, advocated [A] the admission of blacks into local Knights of Labor assemblies. [B] producer and consumer cooperatives. [C] a gradual end to the wage system. [D] temperance. [E] all of these

36. In the West the immigrants who bore the brunt of labor hostility in the 1870s and 1880s were [A] Chinese. [B] Russian. [C] Jewish.

37. Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor, advocated [A] “trade unionism, pure and simple,” concentrating on practical issues like wages and hours. [B] “one big union,” welcoming both skilled and unskilled workers. [C] that skilled craftsmen give up their autonomy in order to create solidarity with unskilled workers in the union. D] broad social reforms by getting pro-labor politicians elected. [E] and end to “that relic of barbarism,” the strike.

38. “Yellow dog” contracts were contracts [A] in which employers agreed not to hire Chinese immigrants. [B] in which workers promised not to strike or join a union. [C] that guaranteed that only union members would be hired. [D] A and B [E] none of these [D] Mexicans. [E] Irish Catholic. [D] women. [E] immigrants. 6

39. Labor relations at the end of the nineteenth century were [A] characterized by violence and thousands of strikes. [B] relatively peaceful because employers had successfully eliminated labor unrest. C] occasionally turbulent, but most grievances were dealt with effectively through collective bargaining. [D] peaceful but tense, because big labor had won out in its struggle against big business. [E] relatively peaceful because welfare paternalism prevailed and employers treated employees like family.

40. The Haymarket Square bombing in 1886 resulted in [A] increased sympathy for workers and unions. [B] intensified animosity toward labor unions. [C] the arrest of the police who fired on the crowd. [D] the election of several German-born anarchists to the Illinois state legislature. [E] passage of the Interstate Commerce Act.

41. What was the role of custom and batch producers in the late-nineteenth-century American economy? [A] They pushed out low-wage sweatshops. [B] They were the main engine of American economic growth. [C] They met the needs, mainly, of the wealthiest Americans. [D] They had very little impact because the economy was dominated by big business. [E] They stimulated American productivity by supplementing bulk-manufactured staples.

42. In the Pullman strike [A] workers walked out to protest conditions at Carnegie’s steel mills, but eventually returned to work without gaining any improvements. [B] managers cut wages and locked out the workers to destroy their union. [C] the federal government used an injunction and troops against workers, and jailed the union leaders. [D] the Knights of Labor led railroad workers in a demand for the eight-hour day and finally got it from the railroads. [E] the state of Illinois tried eight anarchists for a bombing, found them guilty, and executed four of them.

43. Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, argued that [A] mechanization would become the “invisible hand” and automation would eliminate human labor. B] wealth should be distributed evenly throughout society: each according to his need, each according to his ability. [C] a single tax would solve the nation’s uneven distribution of wealth. [D] self-interest acted as an “invisible hand” in the marketplace, automatically regulating the supply of and demand for services. [E] inexorable natural laws controlled the social order.

44. Who argued that poverty was not the result of unchangeable natural laws and could be eliminated by government intervention and social planning? [A] William Graham Sumner [D] Andrew Carnegie [B] Lester Frank Ward [E] Henry George [C] John D. Rockefeller

45. The Socialist Labor party was [A] the Knights of Labor. [B] a Marxist-oriented political party which attracted only 1,500 members in 1890. [C] an alliance of reform-minded socialites and labor activists. [D] responsible for the three most violent strikes in American labor history. [E] an anarchist organization that rejected Marxism and preached the destruction of capitalism, the violent overthrow of the state, and the immediate introduction of a stateless utopia.