1750 – 1914 Review Revolution, Nationalism, Industrialization, Imperialism, and Emancipation

Revolutions:

  • American Revolution – 1775 – 1783
  1. Declaration of Independence expressed Enlightened Ideas (Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke)
  2. Ideas really only applied to rich, white guys
  3. Economy was based upon slavery
  4. Americans received aid from France (the enemy of my enemy is my ___)
  5. Americans win! French 1789 – 1803 (Napoleon from 1803 to 1815)
  6. Caused by financial issues and social class structure
  7. Declaration of the Rights of Man declared the equality of all men, regardless of wealth or birth
  8. Violent phase led by the Committee of Public Safety – Robespierre and the Jacobins
  9. Napoleon Bonaparte became the Consul and later the dictator
  10. Began wars across Europe – spread Enlightened ideas; defeated at Waterloo
  11. Congress of Vienna met to decide what to do about Europe – pretend it never happened
  • Haiti
  1. o Slave plantations for sugar o 500,000 slaves, 40,000 whites, 30,000 other
  2. o French sent some of the “other” (free blacks) to fight in the American Revolution and they returned with radical ideas – led to civil war in Haiti
  3. o August of 1791 a slave revolt erupted – led by Toussaint Louverture
  4. o 1801 Haiti Constitution
  5. o 1803 Independence official declared
  6. o 1804 First to abolish slavery in the Americas
  • Latin American
  1. o Colonies were very racially diverse with slaves and free people of various colors
  2. o 1807 Napoleon took Spain and Portugal
  3. o Spanish colonies questioned why they should remain loyal
  4. o Portuguese royals moved to Brazil
  5. o Mexico – peasant rebellion in 1810 led by Father Miguel de Hidalgo, but conservative (RICH) landlords suppressed them
  6. o South American revolts were led by Simon Bolivar and San Martin –– 1824 Spanish armies defeated
  7. o As a result of the Latin American revolutions, most Spanish whites returned to Spain while Creoles (Spanish born in the Americas – still wealthy, but were treated poorly compared to Native Spanish) maintained control – kept slavery and poor conditions for Native American peasants

Nationalism

  • Desire to be united with people who share your language, religion, culture, and history
  • Italy and Germany became two European countries that unified during this time
  • Zionism emerged as a movement for Jews to “return to Palestine” and form a Jewish state – led by Theodor Herzl
  • Latin American constitutions limited participation of the poor peasants, and Native Americans sought some power – failed; Catholic Church remained very powerful
  • Rumblings in Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire by various groups (LEADS TO WWI)

Industrialization

  • Science and Technological advances of the previous period led to the Industrial Revolution in the west – machine parts, trains, steamships, etc.

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Major impact on family and women as young women and children worked in factories; married men works in factories; slums developed in cities; factory workers were extremely poor, but factory managers became middle class Raw materials for factories led to imperialism – rubber from Africa, Asia, and Latin America; cotton from Egypt and India, etc. ; non-western world did not prosper from European Industrialization The economic conditions developed from the Industrial Revolution led to a call for economic reform. Socialism grew out of Karl Marx – workers were poor while owners were rich – should share wealth Unionism – organized workers demanded better pay and better working conditions – outlawed in most countries

Ottoman Empire

  • Lost power compared to Europeans
  • Controlled huge numbers of nationalities, including Greeks, Arabs, and Persians
  • Napoleon came to Egypt and “liberated” Egypt (well, he tried to defeat the British there) – after Napoleon left Muhammad Ali took control of Egypt
  • Under Ali’s son, the French helped to finance the Suez Canal (1869) opened up more trade through Egypt = wealth
  • Ottomans lost more territory when the Greek’s rebelled
  • Mahmud II tried to create a more efficient system, built schools, roads, telegraph lines, and a postal service; he also allowed for a more fair legal system (Tanzimat Era – used French legal system)
  • Young Turks was a group that wanted reform and moderate Muslim systems; fought for universal suffrage, rights for women, and equality before the law for all groups – 1908 Young Turks overthrew the Sultan and began a road to a new Ottoman Empire and a “Turkey” Russia
  • Many nationalities under an absolutist Czar
  • Expanded during this time period – into parts of Chinese controlled Asia
  • When they tried to take land from the Ottomans, the Europeans declared war (didn’t want Russia to get more land in the Balkans, not because they liked the Ottomans) – this was the Crimean War
  • Russia was defeated in the Crimean War – problems for the Czar
  • 1861 – Czar Alexander II issued the Emancipation Order for the Serfs (1865 deadline)
  • Built the Tran-Siberian railroad brought economic growth, but workers were very poor
  • Factories were “encouraged” by government money, but most of the wealthy of Russia weren’t interested; factory workers had very poor wages and often went on strike
  • 1897 limited factory workday to 11. hours
  • University students studied revolutionary ideas (Enlightenment and Marx) and started to push for economic and political reforms – equal distribution of power and wealth
  • 1904 Russo-Japanese War was a humiliation to for the Russians
  • 1905 protest in St. Petersburg led to peaceful protesters being fired upon – Bloody Sunday (Revolution of 1905) – government created a Duma – congress, but it had little power China

Qing/Manchu dynasty was very ineffective Chinese population grew to 420 million – strains on food supply and job opportunities 1839 Opium War between China and Britain – led to demand for “equal” trade of all European countries in China Taiping Rebellion – Hong Xiuquan (brother of Jesus) created an army – 10 years of conflict with China “Great Strengthening Movement” -- 1860s and 1870s Chinese built modern shipyards, railroads, and weapons

Japan 

Founded schools of science Hundred Days of Reform – reinterpret Confucian thought to justify radical changes – constitutional monarchy, civil liberties, international associations – resisted by the Emperor and the Dowager Cixi 1900 Boxer Rebellion sought to expel all foreigners; supported by the Empress; the U. S. Russia, and Japan defeated the Boxers 1911 Sun Yat Sen became the first “president” of China, but corruption remained Sun Yat Sen stressed nationalism, democracy, and socialism Meiji Restoration changed from a feudal to a commercial economy Under the Tokugawa Shogunate Japan was isolationist and the emperor didn’t have any power Meiji brought government sponsored industrialization, modern infrastructure, and a modern army

Imperialism

  • Europeans wanted cheap raw materials and a place for manufactured goods
  • Harbors were needed for military and political reasons
  • Spread of Christianity and the desire to take on the “White Man’s Burden” and civilize the world – if only everyone were like us
  • India was taken over after the British East India Company took an interest
  1. o Sepoy Mutiny should problems between British and locals (1857)
  2. o India became a place for tea, coffee, opium, and cotton
  3. o Railroads, telegraphs, canals, harbors, and irrigation systems were built
  4. o British schools
  5. o Indian National Congress founded in 1885 sought Indian Independence
  6. o All-Indian Muslim League joined with the INC for independence o 1909 wealthy Indians were given the right to vote, but independence became more of an issue
  • Africa
  1. o Prior to the Berlin Conference Europeans were mainly in trading coastal cities
  2. o After the Conference Africa was divided up to use rubber, diamonds, and other minerals and goods – forced labor o Suez Canal major concern and the British occupied it for a time o King Leopold II of Belgium took control of the Congo – cruelest labor conditions of all
  • Japan
  1. o Government-sponsored industrialization created a powerful country that Europe couldn’t control
  2. o Japan sought to create its own imperialist empire
  3. o Korea came under control through treaties
  4. o Sino-Japanese War led to Japan defeating China and officially taking Korea, Taiwan, and various islands
  5. o Russo-Japanese War led to Japan taking Manchuria and the rest of Korea
  • Impact of Imperialism
  1. o Countries became dependent upon Europe
  2. o Migration increased – Europeans wanted cheap land in new colonies
  3. o Indentured Servants became a major source of labor and provided the poor a chance to migrate o Social Darwinism emerged as an argument that darker people were inferior to whites Emancipation
  • Slavery became less profitable – defending against revolts was a problem, factories made them less necessary, machines decreased the need for human labor, sugar prices decreased
  1. o 1807 Great Britain ended the slave trade
  2. o 1808 US ended the slave trade
  3. o 1833 Great Britain ended slavery
  4. o 1848 France ended slavery
  5. o 1865 U. S. ended slavery
  6. o 1888 Brazil ended slavery
  7. o Just because slavery ended didn’t mean improved conditions Serfdom indeed in 1861/1865, but most serfs couldn’t buy freedom Women gained some political rights
  8. o 1910 Norway gave women the right to vote
  9. o 1918 Great Britain gave women the right to vote o 1920 U. S. gave women the right to vote

Cultural Influences

  • The interaction between cultures led to African and Asian influences on European Art