(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
The Praise of Folly
In 1509, Desiderius Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly. This book poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Erasmus believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of ceremonies and rules. He thought that in order to improve society, all people should study the Bible.
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
(Roman Catholic Church) the act of a penitent disclosing his sinfulness before a priest in the sacrament of penance in the hope of absolution
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation. (p. 446)
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
The Peasant's War
A rebellion against the German Princes of the 1500's, the peasants claimed that the German Nobles had levied unfair taxes and duties on them. They cited Luther and his burgeoning movement as backing. Luther didn't agree, he was adverse to anything that disrupted the order of law.
In the Sacrament of the Eucharist, this is the name given to the action of changing the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ.
King of France; a Renaissance monarch; patron of the arts; imposed new controls on the Catholic church; ally of the Ottoman sultan against the Holy Roman emperor.
Ulrich Zwingli (144-1531); Zurich, Switzerland; League of evangelical cities; Marburg Colloquy, 1529; War between Swiss Protestant and Catholic cantons
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Catherine of Aragon
When Henry VIII needed a son to continue the Tudor dynasty, and he found out his wife Catherine of Aragon could not give him one (only a daughter, Mary), he sought an annulment. Of course, the Catholic Church denied him one, and in return Henry VIII split England from the Catholic Church.
Pope Clement VII
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.
(1501-1536) lover of Henry VIII; claims that Henry VIII is a "godly king"; arrested and decapitated on crime of incest
She was Henry the 8th's third wife and she married him 10 days after Anne Boleyn was beheaded. She was the mother of Edward the 6th, Henry's only male hier witch was Edward.
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
First Queen of England by birthright 1553-1558 - switches the religion back to Catholicism. Her nickname is "Bloody Mary" because of all the blood spilled during her reign.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John
King of France from 1560 to 1574 whose reign was dominated by his mother Catherine de Medicis (1550-1574)
Unsure of whom he should ally with. Tries to kick out Guise family and assassinates two of them after they ally with Spain, but ultimately fails. Guise family strikes back at him and Huguenots and an angry Catholic monk ends up killing Henry.
Henry of Navarre- 1st Bourbon King. ended french civil wars- Edict of Nantes- some religious protection of Huguenots ( French Potestants). Assassinated in 1610
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Queen Elizabeth I
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England
the legislature of Great Britain, historically the assembly of the three estates, now composed of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, forming together the House of Lords, and representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and universities, forming the House of Commons.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.