No work in Oaxaca ( have to immigrate to America, no other choice to survive)
Structural violence: violence committed by configurations that have socially injurious effects on bodies
Observe through embodied anthropology- participant observation
Discrimination: how the ethnographer being white, was able to keep his job and shake even when he couldn't pick the minimum, and the farm executives would make jokes with him and sometimes even help fill his basket
Wage- payed less than minimum wage
Conjugated oppression: laborers were denied respect and deprived of physical and mental health
Sexism: women never promoted, riqui women are less likely to leave the home to work, denied opportunity to practice their English in united states
Physicians focusing on isolated body part ignoring their social and personal realities
Patient objectification (doctors are better)
Blame the patient for their suffering
Body as object: physicians focus on "isolated, diseased organs, treating the patient increasingly as body, and ignoring the social and personal realities of the patient, the person; patient is rendered silent while doctors discuss d"diseases", "sees through the patient"
Medical training: experience of objectification and dehumanization of the patient and physician, medical student presentation training: "transforms patients and their human, social,and bodily reality into generalized cases of a medical disease that as the same time protect the students from uncertainty (pg 116).
doctor to doctor; I-thou versus we-you
Discriminatory international policies and harsh conditions of traveling (financial difference)
Constant stress in border and work, worry about making ends meet
Aims: demonstrate the "violence continuum" through the presentation vignettes of suffering in the context of migrant farm work, present concrete examples of different form of violence: structural, symbolic, direct political/physical, everyday.., render different forms of violence "visible" through ethnographic fieldwork and ethnography
Physical and social suffering: "allostatic load"- accumulation of health risks associated with chronic stress- wear and tear on the body- "due to traumatic experiences crossing the border and fear of deportation" and of course, work conditions
Migrant workers have an increased risk of: musculoskeletal pain, heart disease, cancer, stillbirth, hypertension, sterility, blood disorders, dental; problems, disorders in kidney function, pulmonary problems'
Lation paradox: research indicating the the U.S. "latino population" fares better in regard to many health concerns despite their overall lower socio-economic status in the US (migrant workers not always included in these statistics)
Bill Tamayo specializes in this type of work
Women are vulnerable because don't know laws, dont know english, need to keep their job (economically dependent), culturally and geographically isolated
Examples Harris Farms (victim held at gunpoint, abused three times, first case to go to trial in 2002), Evan Fruit (Juan Marin was auser, Angela Mendoza spoke out when her fiteen year old daughter was constantly harassed by Juan, 26 women spoke out about him, he denied charges in trial- no punishment), Decoster Egg processing plant (horrendous working conditions, when border patrol was near plant workers would be locked in rooms, animal cruelty, women would disappear)
No physical evidence but more women come up to talk about it, even if jury agrees the abuser is guilty, usually not given any jail time or real punishment, victims are just given money as compensation
U-visas: help women stay in country if abused and defended through rights
Immigrants seen as victims because they were abused or criminals because they are not citizens?
"Money doesn't give you self-worth as a women, justice does"
Mortal elective neglect: learning when to let oneself love a child, emotional vicissitudes: mothers do not feel "guilt" or "regret" in letting infants die- delayed emotional attachment, deaths come to be seen as fated and inevitable, recognizing acute causes versus chronic causes and choosing appropriate courses of action
Notions of personhood: coming to understand infants as "not having feeling" or as not a full person yet women are slow to "anthropomorphize" and "personalize their infants
The church: understand infants as destined for heaven. One should not disrupt an infant's route to heaven by performing grief publicly. Baptisms are delayed by local priests: funeral processions are short and rituals simple
State and government: deaths are registered without question regarding the cause, anyone can register for death, vouchers are given for coffins
Hospitals and medical resources: aliments are misdiagnosed, sedatives and tranquilizers are given to promote deaths, midwives become important