seeks to reflect the material "reality" of individual experiences and was the primary mode of protest fiction by african american authors (1940-1960)
Urban Naturalism
literary style in which characters' environments are portrayed as acting against their human desires. Characters are often unable to express their own choices because of the force of their surroudings
Protest fiction
literary output between 1940-1960 that reflects the multiple upheavals of the time; much of the work confronts social ills.
Civil Rights Movement
1950s & 60s movement made up by multiple different organizations seeking legal equality and federal protection of African Americans in the US
Black Power Movement
Black nationalists and separatists movements emphasized the need for revolutionary overthrow of the systems in place- not simply just changing the laws, but new systems
Motown Sound
music label centered in Detroit, MI created by Berry Gordy; pioneered a distinct sound that combined soul with pop and helped desegregate popular music; fist black owned label to cross over into white audiences and radio
Black Arts Movement
movement of black artists serving the desires of Black Nationalists; sought to resist white traditions and establish a Black Aesthetic; saw politics and artistic expression as fundamentally linked and wanted to make art that expressed the needs of the black community
"Black is Beautiful"
1960s and 70s movement to celebrate Blackness as physically attractive; included afrocentric style or imagery suggesting African influences
Hip Hop CUlture
began as an art practiced by mainly African americans and Latinos in inter-cities of NY; artists found a way to make art despite access to resources and new technology. Art included: graffiti, rap, scratching, and break-dancing
#BlackLivesMatter Movement
social and literary movement; created in 2012 following the Trayvon Martin case; call to action and a response to the anti-black racism in our society
James Bladwin
-Letter to My Nephew
-Going to Meet the Man
-Everybody's Protest Novel
Ann Petry
-The Street
Ralph Ellison
-The Invisible Man
-I Have a Dream
-Letter from Birmingham Jail
Malcolm X
-The Ballot or the Bullet
Amiri Baraka
-The Dutchman
-Black Art
-Revolutionary Theater
Audre Lorde
-Poetry is Not a Luxury
Sonia Sanchez
Nikki Giovanni
-For Saundra
-Ego Tripping
Alice Walker
Everyday Use
Sherley Anne Williams
Tell Martha Not to Moan
Tongues Untied
directed by Marlon Riggs in collaboration with Essex Hemphill who wrote the poem "Now We Think"
Octavia Butler
Barack Obama
A more perfect union
Kiese Laymon
How to Slowly Kill Yourself and Others in America
Ta-Nehisi Coates
Between the World and Me
Claudia Rankine
small jokes that unintentionally hurt the people on the receiving end, often racially motivated; unknowingly reinforcing stereotypes
Claudia Rankine- they create continual tension, uneasiness, anxiety, discomfort
Foil Characters
Characters who function to demonstrate the attributes of a character they contrast with; through compare and contrast we see the differences
-Alice Walker Everyday Use - Dee and Maggie
Speakerly Text
Story that mimics the patterns of speech and is presented as if the story is being spoken to the reader and not written on a page
-Tell Martha Not to Moan- Sherley Ann Williams
Essays as letters
They are more intimate, make them feel more personal
-James Baldwin - letter to my nephew
-Ta-Nehisi Coates -Between the world and me (son)
Written in the way that the character speaks it aloud
-Tell Martha Not to Moan- Sherley Ann Williams
direct address/second person
"You" makes the reader feel as if they are apart of the event; they feel what the author intends them to feel; leaves out identifying characteristics like race and gender; it implicates the reader no matter who they are
-Claudia Rankine - Citizen
I have a Dream
The Ballot or the Bullet
A More Perfect Union
Absurdist Theater
Theater where human existence is shown to be meaningless and communication breaks down. The world presented is shown at a remove from reality
-Dutchman Amiri Baraka
Science Fiction
Bloodchild Octavia Butler
-key figure in shifting science fiction to include Black people