This created a good momentum. Money did not matter for the members. Meeting was held every week and everybody was required to attend the meeting till the end where they shared their ideas and accomplishments. There weren't any fixed set of rules for the employees and everybody knew what their role was. Some members were arrogant but they were left as it Is considering their talent. 2. Chester Bernard maintained that managers must find ways to encourage workers to cooperate with each other and management willingly. This can occur through trial incentives like rewards or monetarily incentives like recognition.
Managers should also make clear what needs to be accomplished. Simply put, they must communicate with employees what the organization's goals and purposes are. Bernard writes that the acceptance of authority also depends on how workers perceive authority. Given this. How would Chester Bernard regard the level of cooperation between PARA and the rest of Xerox? At PARA, there was no fixed set of rules for the members. They knew what they were doing. Any kind of conflicts were resolved in a good way by Bob Taylor who was like a previous or manager for the team.
Even though PARA was an adjunct of Xerox, there was no Intervention. Even after the development of sigma, PARA team decided not to use sigma because It was not compatible which created a heat between PARA and Xerox. But this issue was also solved later when George Peak threatened to quit. Thus even though there were some ups and downs in the relations between Xerox and PARA, it looks like there was a good cooperation between Xerox and PARA. 3. The text discusses a number of managerial theories that have relevance for lancing managerial authority with employee morale.
One concept to consider is bureaucratic management, which is defined as "the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge. " The aim of bureaucracy is not to protect authority but to achieve goals in the most efficient way possible. This like hiring, promotion, and punishment is based completely on experience and achievement. How did Bob Taylor go about creating his Great Group? (Consider how he recruited, whom he recruited, and how he retained AT PARA, the candidates were not only interviewed but they also had to give a little elk before the assembled staff and field probing.
To get accepted into PARA was itself a great honor and a feeling that you were one among the brightest. For the existing candidates, a new successful candidate was someone who was going to make it more fun for them. Taylor believed in hiring great people with big talents and passions and turning them loose on projects that reflected their unique talents. He left the members alone. There was no pressure. They were paid well but were more focused on what they were building. He did not burden the team with rules and isolations.
There was one single rule everybody had to follow which was to attend a weekly meeting from the beginning till the end. And the reason behind the meeting was to exchange ideas, present the accomplishments and hurdles if any. 4. Mary Parker Foulest believed that managers could deal with conflict in three ways: domination, compromise, and integration. Mary Parker Foulest believed that managers should pursue integrative conflict resolution. In this process, both parties in the conflict indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that tests the needs of both.
How did Bob Taylor deal with conflict in his Great Group? (Hint: go to page 122 in Organizing Genius and read paragraph 2. ) Bob Taylor used a phenomenon called theory of cognitive dissonance to resolve the conflicts between the members. The theory of cognitive dissonance implicates that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by altering existing cognitions, adding new ones to create a consistent belief system, or alternatively by reducing the importance of any one of the dissonant elements.
Taylor used this quinine to drain the heat between the members in of the group. 5. In your text, it states: "Companies must embrace new technology and find effective ways to use it to improve their products and services or decrease costs. If they don't they will lose out to those companies that do. " Why didn't Xerox commercially exploit the Alto? Lack of vision was the first and the biggest reason and the attitude and behavior of people working for PARA. Employees or members working at PARA were hard headed and would not listen to anybody even to the chief appointed by Xerox.